Governor Signs Fair Chance Hiring Bill

Governor Signs Fair Chance Hiring Bill

Governor Signs Fair Chance Hiring Bill

San Bernardino, CA – Today Governor Brown signed AB 1008 into law, The California Fair Chance Act that ends employment discrimination during the hiring process for job applicants with a conviction history. This makes California the tenth state to “ban the box” to private employers. The bill was co-sponsored by Time for Change Foundation, Legal Services for Prisoners with Children, All of Us or None, and the National Employment Law Project.
 
For years Melissa tried to apply for jobs to support herself and family of five and every time she reached the dreaded question on the application: have you ever been convicted of a crime, her stomach turned into knots. She wasn’t proud of her past, but she already served the time for her mistakes and was trying to forge a new life by getting a job and becoming a contributing member of society. Yet, society still marked her with a scarlet letter and would pass her over before her skills and qualifications were ever considered.
 
Since she wasn’t able to obtain work, Melissa was forced to seek shelter and support at Time for Change Foundation where she met other women who also faced the same discrimination. It was then that she decided she would use her voice and speak out against the injustices she faced during the hiring process. Like Melissa, there are far too many individuals and families who are impacted by background checks and inquiries into their conviction records. According to the National Employment Law Project (NELP), there are an estimated 70 million U.S. adults with arrests or convictions.
 
“At TFCF, we witness firsthand the barriers women face by not having access to employment opportunities and when children are involved they often suffer the most consequences,” expressed Vanessa Perez, Associate Director for Time for Change Foundation. “Thank you, Governor Brown, for giving millions of Californians a fair chance at employment.”
 
The Fair-chance reform allows job searchers like Melissa to have a fighting chance at securing employment without their past being used as weapons against them. Not only does AB 1008 remove job barriers but it helps the economy as well. With more people in the workforce there will be an increase in tax contributions, boosts in sales tax, and the opportunity to save money by keeping people of out the criminal justice system reported NELP. With one less barrier in her path, Melissa is closer to providing for her family and reaching self-sufficiency.
 
AB 1008 delays background screenings until an official offer has been made and allows the applicant to request a copy of their records in the event they would like to provide additional information regarding their history.
 
AB 1008 was authored by Assemblymember Kevin McCarty (D-Sacramento) as well as Assemblymembers Shirley Weber (D-San Diego), Chris Holden (D-Pasadena), Mike Gipson (D-Carson), Eloise Gomez Reyes (D-San Bernardino), and Senator Steven Bradford (D-Gardena).
 
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The mission of TFCF is to empower disenfranchised low-income individuals and families by building leadership through evidence-based programs and housing to create self-sufficiency and thriving communities. To learn more about Time for Change Foundation or to make a donation visit their website at www.TimeForChangeFoundation.org or call them at 909-886-2994.

 

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Help Get Our “Ban The Box” Bill Out Of The Final Committee

Help Get Our “Ban The Box” Bill Out Of The Final Committee

Help Get Our “Ban The Box” Bill Out Of The Final Committee

AB 1008 (McCarty) passed out of the California State Assembly and is now in the Senate Judiciary Committee. We need your help to pass AB 1008 out of this final committee by calling the seven members on the Senate Judiciary Committee listed below and have them tally your support for the bill.

AB 1008 will extend Ban the Box / Fair Chance Hiring policy to private employers, removing the “Have you ever been convicted of a felony?” question from employment applications and prohibiting employers from performing a background check until after they extend a conditional job offer. Removing this barrier to employment allows formerly incarcerated and convicted people a chance to interview in person and be evaluated according to skills and experience relative to the job.

Please call the Judiciary Committee Members by end of day Monday, July 10:
Senator Hannah-Beth Jackson (Chair) – (916) 651-4019
(If you make only one call, make it to Senator Jackson!)
Senator John M. W. Moorlach (Vice Chair) – (916) 651-4037
Senator Joel Anderson – (916) 651-4038
Senator Robert M. Hertzberg – (916) 651-4018
Senator Bill Monning – (916) 651-4017
Senator Henry I. Stern – (916) 651-4027
Senator Bob Wieckowski – (916) 651-4010

Feel free to use this sample script:

Hello, my name is __________ from [town in CA].

I am calling in support of AB 1008, the Fair Chance Hiring bill.

Formerly incarcerated people already face many barriers to re-entry, and they/we need access to meaningful employment to take care of families and contribute positively to the community.

Please extend California’s “Ban the Box” policy to private employers and give formerly incarcerated and convicted people a chance to show employers their skills and potential.

[Share personal experience here, if applicable or possible-keep it short!]

True public safety is created through employment, housing, and community.

Please pass AB 1008 and add me to the support tally you keep for your Member.

Thank you,

(Your Name)
(Company Name)

[Bonus: if one of the members represents your district, let them know!]

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How Close Are We to Ending Homelessness among Families in California and What Are the Next Steps?

How Close Are We to Ending Homelessness among Families in California and What Are the Next Steps?
A brief prepared by Joe Colletti, PhD and Sofia Herrera, PhD Urban Initiatives on Homelessness and Poverty
We may be getting close to ending homelessness among unsheltered and sheltered families in California. A comparison of recent data shows that the total number of unsheltered families decreased significantly and the total number of sheltered families decreased slightly between 2010 and 2016 according to unduplicated one-night (point-in-time) estimates of both unsheltered and sheltered persons reported by the continuums of care1 that make up California.
How Close Are We?

The total number of unsheltered and sheltered families decreased between 2010 and 2016.2 In 2010, there were 8,312 unsheltered and sheltered families and 7,338 in 2016, which represents a decrease of 974 families or 12%. There were 2,362 unsheltered families in 2010 and 1,564 in 2016, which represents a significant decrease of 798 families or 34%. The total number of sheltered families decreased slightly between 2010 and 2016. In 2010, there were 5,950 sheltered families and 5,774 in 2016, which represents a decrease of 176 families or 3%.

A Close Look at the Current Strategies
This brief takes a close look at the strategies that were included in the 2016 Continuum of Care Program applications submitted by 40 California continuums of care to the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) in September.
HUD has made it clear that the key to making progress towards ending homelessness among households with children is implementing a best practice known as Rapid Rehousing, which is a practice promoted by a wide-range of national, state, and local public and private organizations. Rapid Rehousing, as described by HUD,
“is an intervention, informed by a Housing First approach that is a critical part of a community’s effective homeless crisis response system. Rapid re-housing rapidly connects families and individuals experiencing homelessness to permanent housing through a tailored package of assistance that may include the use of time-limited financial assistance and targeted supportive services. Rapid rehousing programs help families and individuals living on the streets or in emergency shelters solve the practical and immediate challenges to obtaining permanent housing while reducing the amount of time they experience homelessness, avoiding a near-term return to homelessness, and linking to community resources that enable them to achieve housing stability in the long-term.”3
HUD has also made it clear that the implementation of a Rapid Rehousing intervention should be linked with a coordinated entry process. HUD requires all continuums of care to put into operation a Coordinated Entry System (CES) which helps
“communities prioritize assistance based on vulnerability and severity of service needs to ensure that people who need assistance the most can receive it in a timely manner.  Coordinated entry processes also provide information about service needs and gaps to help communities plan their assistance and identify needed resources.”4
Advancing the Strategies
This brief also focuses on advancing these strategies as outlined in the last section. Advancing the strategies include:
  • Increasing the Number of Rapid Rehousing Units
In order to continue to increase the number of Rapid Rehousing units, all California CoCs should promote the following sources of funding for which Rapid Rehousing is an eligible activity among eligible public and private agencies within their jurisdiction:
    • Permanent Housing Bonus Continuum of Care Program Competition;
    • reallocation of renewal funding through the Continuum of Care Program Competition;
    • Emergency Solutions Grant; and
    • California Work Opportunity and Responsibility to Kids (CalWORKs) Housing Support Program (HSP).
  • Use All the Following Factors to Prioritize Families
All California CoCs should use all the following factors to prioritize households with children which include:
    • Vulnerability to victimization;
    • Number of previous homeless episodes;
    • Unsheltered homelessness;
    • Criminal history;
    • Bad credit or rental history including not having been a leaseholder; and
    • Head of household has mental/physical disabilities.
Not all California CoCs are using all the factors.
  • Use All Four Strategies Noted by HUD to Rapidly Rehouse Every Family Within 30 Days of Those Families Becoming Homeless
All California CoCs should include the four strategies that HUD encourages to rapidly rehouse every household with children within 30 days of those families becoming homeless. The four strategies are
    • coordinated entry process;
    • Housing First approach;
    • maximizing Continuum of Care (CoC) funds; and
    • maximizing Emergency Solutions Grant (ESG) funds.
Not all California CoCs are using all the strategies.
  • Ensure that all emergency shelters, transitional housing, and permanent housing (PSH and RRH) providers within the CoC do not deny admission to or separate any family members from other members of their family based on age, sex, gender or disability when entering shelter or housing.
All California CoCs should help ensure that all emergency shelters, transitional housing, and permanent housing (PSH and RRH) providers within the CoC do not deny admission to or separate any family members from other members of their family based on age, sex, gender or disability when entering shelter or housing.
HUD stated that
“Involuntary separation of family members most commonly takes the form of separating male members of the household to admit female members into a project. The CoC Interim Rule at 24 CFR 578.93 (e) and 24 CFR 576.102(b) explicitly prohibit any kind of involuntary family separation and the denial of admission to selected family members, including those described above in all CoC Program-funded projects and ESG-funded emergency shelters. HUD’s FAQ 1529 provides additional clarification on this requirement.”5
However, it is also important to note that HUD noted other types of involuntary separation of family members in the recently published Equal Access to Housing Final Rule (https://www.hudexchange.info/resources/documents/EqualAccess_FinalRule_2.3.12.pdf). The Rule noted that

“Family includes, but is not limited to, regardless of marital status, actual or perceived sexual orientation, or gender identity, any group of persons presenting for assistance together with or without children and irrespective of age, relationship, or whether or not a member of the household has a disability. A child who is temporarily away from the home because of placement in foster care is considered a member of the family. What this means is that any group of people that present together for assistance and identify themselves as a family, regardless of age or relationship or other factors, are considered to be a family and must be served together as such. Further, a recipient or subrecipient receiving funds under the ESG or CoC Programs cannot discriminate against a group of people presenting as a family based on the composition of the family (e.g., adults and children or just adults), the age of any member’s family, the disability status of any members of the family, marital status, actual or perceived sexual orientation, or gender identity.”
Also, it is important to note that HUD, in a joint letter with the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), and the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ), reminded that federally funded housing and service providers that they
“must not turn away immigrants experiencing homelessness or victims of domestic violence or human trafficking, on the basis of their immigration status, from certain housing and services necessary for life or safety – such as street outreach, emergency shelter, and short-term housing assistance including transitional housing and rapid re-housing funded through the Emergency Solutions Grants (ESG) and Continuum of Care (CoC) Programs.”6
 
Click here to read the entire brief which includes tables that provide data for each of the 40 California CoCs. 

1A “Continuum of Care” is a geographically based group of representatives that carries out the planning responsibilities of the Continuum of Care program, as described in 24 CFR Part 578 [Docket No. FR-5476-I-01] RIN 2506-AC29 Homeless Emergency Assistance and Rapid Transition to Housing: Continuum of Care Program Interim Rule by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). These representatives come from organizations that provide services to the homeless, or represent the interests of the homeless or formerly homeless.
2The 2010 data was collected from the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development’s (HUD) Continuum of Care (CoC) Homeless Assistance Programs Homeless Populations and Subpopulations Reports which are available on-line.[1] The 2016 data was collected from the 2016 Continuum of Care Program applications, which were submitted to HUD for funding last September.
5“FY 2016 Continuum of Care (CoC) Application Detailed Instructions,” p. 54.

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One of the biggest cities in the US wants to put homeless people in tiny houses

One of the biggest cities in the US wants to put homeless people in tiny houses | Article by Business Insider

A new law will make the city, located an hour’s drive south of San Francisco, the first in the state to legally permit construction of tiny homes for the homeless, the San Jose Mercury News reports.

Starting in January, the city will temporarily make an exception to state building, safety, and health codes and build houses so small, they wouldn’t ordinarily be approved for construction. The new residences will measure 70 square feet for individuals and 120 square feet for couples. It’s still unknown how many people the program will accommodate.

Cute as they may be, tiny houses are often illegal.

tiny house side A typical tiny house spans less than 500 square feet. Flickr / Tammy Strobel

Many US city and county governments (including San Jose prior to this new law)do not authorize residences under a certain square footage. Development codes have requirements related to plumbing, utilities, and building foundations that such unconventional dwellings don’t meet.

That’sunfortunate, because tiny homes offer a creative solution to the homelessness crisis. Tiny homes cost between $200 and $400 per square foot, depending on the materials used and their extravagance, according to Forbes, while the median list price in San Jose is $515 per square foot. Earlier this year, the city became the first in the US where the average home costs over $1 million.

Coyote Creek Homeless San Jose 6 A homeless camp sits by Coyote Creek in San Jose, California. Robert Johnson for Business Insider

In San Jose, where many of the city’s homeless stay in camps along trails, creeks, and rivers, something had to give. The city declared a “shelter crisis” back in December for the purpose of building homes that skirt existing development codes, according to the Mercury News.

“This law really is the first of its kind,” Ray Bramson, San Jose’s homeless response manager, tells the Mercury News. “It will allow us to create bridge housing opportunities — a stable place people can live and stay while they’re waiting to be placed in a permanent home.”

San Jose isn’t the first city to build tiny houses for the homeless. A number of cities, including Austin, Texas; Detroit, Michigan; and Portland, Oregon, have experimented with “tiny villages” for the homeless. Residents of these villages speaking to the media describe a sense of pride in their communities.

tiny house home homeless Dallas, Texas, embraces the national trend of giving the homeless permanent housing. Tony Gutierrez/AP

In Austin, the creator of one such village estimates it will save taxpayers up to $3 million annually that’s normally spent on medical bills and criminal justice expenses for the homeless.

San Jose plans to hold a competition where people can submit designs for the new homes. Cost effectiveness and the ability to duplicate homes easily are two major criteria, according to Bramson. The future locations of the tiny homes is still to be determined.

The law that temporarily allows their construction in San Jose will be suspended in 2022, when the city will evaluate the program’s impact.

Should it prove successful, other cities in California might look to San Jose to see how it’s done.

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Homeless college students need our help

Homeless college students need our help | Written by Daytona State In Motion

His message was “I need help.” His name was Michael. We never met him, but his words broke our hearts. He said he was in a situation where he had no breathing room and was suddenly homeless.

Directed to DSC counselors, hoping to get the help he needed, Michael’s problem ─ one faced by thousands of students across the nation ─ finally hit home at Daytona State College, a community fixture in a county that has long sought to deal with the issue of homelessness.

Michael’s dilemma certainly won’t be the last.

Engaging in conversations with students on campus, we learned that many are living in transitional housing or are homeless, need transportation and are often hungry. The Free Application for Student Aid estimates there are approximately 58,000 homeless college students in the United States. And they are from every demographic.

A 2015 Annual Report by the Council on Homelessness reveals that about 15,000 young people age out of foster care every year in Florida. Some 71,446 children and youth in Florida school districts are homeless or in unstable housed situation. Clearly, we must do a better job at rectifying this problem.

Aging out of foster care, domestic abuse, job loss, relationship issues and chaotic family situations are just a few

There are a number of factors contributing to the growing homeless population on college campuses. Aging out of foster care, domestic abuse, job loss, relationship issues and chaotic family situations are just a few. In colleges with dorms, during holiday and summer breaks, students who don’t have family are often left with nowhere to go until classes resume.

Homeless students struggle in every area, burdened by their situation. Sometimes they have to decide between eating and purchasing textbooks. They face challenges when applying for financial aid, registering for classes and trying to complete their education.

The National Association for the Education of Homeless Children and Youth provides assistance and advocates for students. The organization reported on their website, naehcy.org, “The Every Student Succeeds Act of 2015 includes new components that will directly assist homeless students’ transition to higher education… and improve their readiness for college. Unaccompanied homeless youth are informed of their status as independent students for college financial aid.”

Some students are finding help, such as Fred Barley, a 19-year-old student in Georgia. Barley’s story filled the news and lit up social media.

According to the Herald-Gazette, in July 2016, Barley “rode six hours on a 20-inch bicycle from Conyers to Gordon’s campus with nothing but a duffle bag, a tent, a box of cereal and two gallons of water. He wanted to be sure he made it to town in time for school with enough time to find a job.” Classes would not start until August, so he pitched a tent on the campus grounds.

Fortunately for Barley, police officers helped him by paying for a hotel room for two nights. His story spread on social media and a GoFundMe account was set up, which raised $150,000 to aid his situation.

We applaud recent efforts by School of Humanities and Communication professor Frank Gunshanan to help the homeless on campus. Last year, he set up a mentorship program and other services to assist. To better serve the needs of the College’s homeless student population, as well as students facing homelessness, the project proposes to create a centralized hub/food bank in which students can better access services offered by the College, as well as the community, ranging from housing to financial to food assistance. While targeting the homeless specifically, the hub will help increase retention of all students by helping them to avoid crises related to homelessness that prevent them from focusing on academics.

For his efforts on behalf of the College’s most vulnerable population, the English professor recently received The Faculty Senate Community Service Outreach Award, bestowed on faculty demonstrating exceptional service and outreach to the local community. Gunshanan remains dedicated to eliminating barriers to success among the College’s homeless student population.

DSC’s Vice-President of Student Development, Keith Kennedy said, “The Center for Women & Men provides several direct services that are beneficial to all students, including homeless students.”

Kristofer Bailey, at DSC’s Center for Women and Men, said, “We identify barriers and help point students where they can get the assistance they need. Such assistance includes: the new Falcon Fuel Pantry; which provides light snacks free to students,  up to three per day; a clothes closet; bus passes; a book loan library; computer labs; and printers. When a student is homeless, and it can be determined that more assistance is needed, we provide more, such as toiletries and more substantial food. Students who can prove they live in a shelter, such as the Salvation Army, can receive waivers to help with tuition.”

For more information about services available to homeless students at DSC, contact the Homeless Student Coordinator, Beth Hoodiman, at beth.hoodiman@daytonastate.edu or Keith Kennedy at keith.kennedy@daytonastate.edu.

Although much more can and should be done to assist homeless students in their battle to overcome the vicious cycle of poverty, In Motion believe the efforts currently underway and those still in the making, are a good start in the right direction.

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California couple overcomes homeless situation in Michigan

California couple overcomes homeless situation in Michigan | Written by Meghan Koglin

GREENVILLE —  When Joe and Amy Hanson (not their real names) moved from California to Michigan, they didn’t have jobs lined up or a place to live.

In fact, they were homeless.

Amy had applied for a transfer to Walmart in Ionia, which she accepted, and they made the move to Michigan.

“I made a promise to his mom before she died and I told him I would get him over here,” Amy said. “But we were late coming in, and they ended up giving my job away. That’s how we ended up in our situation.”

While the situation was frustrating, it wasn’t new to the Hansons. Joe had been dealing with off and on homelessness since he was about 13 years old.

Joe and Amy moved to Michigan in 2014. They brought a moving truck with them, but they had to return it and were left outside in the middle of a snowstorm.

“It was just us and our luggage sitting at a Pilot gas station in the snow,” Amy said. “We got into Midway Hotel because the night before spent it on the back of an abandoned restaurant.”

Joe walked from the hotel to his sister’s house, an eight-mile trek, only to get the door shut in his face. On the way back to his family, a Michigan State Police trooper pulled him over for walking on the wrong side of the road.

“The state trooper said he would let me go because I was new,” Joe said. “Then, I told him where my wife was, and he told me to keep walking. Three hours later, I get to the truck stop and (Amy) is sitting there. She gives me a look, and I turn around and see the state trooper behind me.”

Joe and Amy ended up calling 911 and were transferred to 211 (the information service was still available). They were eventually put in contact with Have Mercy and its Executive Director Kim Cain.

Have Mercy in Greenville is an organization that seeks to meet temporary needs of homeless people while working toward a permanent solution, and it played a big part in Joe and Amy’s life in Michigan. The Hansons are thankful for all the work the agency have done for them.

While agencies were there to help with adjustments, Joe and Amy still dealt with many differences.

“Out there in California, it is a gold mine to a homeless person,” Joe said. “There are umpteen spots I can go to. I can go to one dumpster and pull out $300 to $400 worth of stuff. I’d pull out dresses to give my wife, or what we would do was take those dresses in to a consignment shop and make money.”

Joe also was able to find radios, televisions and food in those dumpsters. One day, he even found a bike, which helped him get around more.

“It was an old man’s bike. But hey, I’m not going to complain if it can get me from point A to point B to point Z, I’m going to ride it,” Joe said.

During his years of living in homelessness, Joe has learned how to survive as a homeless person.

For four years before Joe met Amy, he built a shack out of palettes and nails and lived in it. He had electricity and water.

He also started wearing dark clothing to camouflage himself at night when he would go out to bring home food, clothes and other things he could find.

“The safest time for me is at night because I can get around without being harassed,” Joe said

Joe is adamant about his wife staying safe especially when they were homeless. He noted life as a homeless woman is different and more dangerous than life as a homeless man.

“I ended up working with our son and was making close to $500 a week,” Joe said. “My wife and I decided to buy an RV, but we ended up being scammed of $1,000. So we faced jail time. Instead of letting my wife do time, I did.”

Joe admits he struggled with drug use and abuse in the past, truing everything except heroin. Since coming to Michigan, he says he has been clean.

“I was sick of dealing with homelessness and wanted to be in my own little world,” Joe said. “I went and smoked some crystal away from my wife. When I came back, I had blood in my eyes and would cough up blood.”

Amy asked if he needed to go to the hospital, but he resisted. She ended up putting him through multiple baths with epsom salt to detoxify his body.

Joe decided that was the last time he would do drugs. Not much longer, the couple moved to Michigan.

“I left out the drug scene. I don’t need that,” Joe said. “I have a whole lot better. I have better friends.”

Another difference between Joe’s and Amy’s lives in California and Michigan is that, with the help of Have Mercy and other agencies in Montcalm and Ionia counties, after nine months they are now successfully housed.

“Since he was 13 or 14, he has been dealing with off and on homelessness,” Cain said of Joe. “And to have that person be stably housed, to have that household have stable income, to have them have a happy life, that’s victory. And it doesn’t happen very often.”

Cain credited agencies in Montcalm and Ionia counties for writing that success story. But she emphasized that Joe and Amy played an important role in getting themselves out of homelessness.

“The reason they came out of homelessness is because they wanted,” Cain said. “We are so limited in what we can do. I have people who are still homeless and it’s because they aren’t willing to do what they have to do.”

“You have to want it,” Joe added. “When Kim first met me and (Amy) we wanted it, we wanted help.”

Despite stable housing, Joe and Amy are still facing struggles. Right now, Joe is dealing with a stolen identity problem, which prevents him from working.

“Since Homeland Security stepped in, they check you,” Amy said. “You can’t bring a relative in to vouch for you. It’s a hard situation for a regular person to go in and get their ID. You have to go through the census. It’s a frustrating process.”

Joe warned no one can guarantee he or she won’t end up homeless one day because it can happen to everyone.

“I didn’t make that choice. It was forced on me (when he lost his job in his 20s) because my job was taken from me, everything I had; when you run out of money that puts you on the streets even though you can be the best worker in the world. I was making $1,200 to $1,300 every two weeks in California,” Joe said. “People don’t think how people become homeless. If you don’t have money, you’re going to be homeless. I didn’t have a choice, and my wife didn’t have a choice. We don’t want to be homeless.”

Joe also talked extensively about the difference between homelessness and “street life.”

“Homeless is when you don’t have a choice. When things happen, you lose your job, you lose everything,” he said. “But, street life is when you make that choice. Some people who live on the street think it’s cool. That’s street life, not homelessness.”

Another difference Joe pointed out is homeless people are typically focused on survival.

“Street people want to do drugs, have sex and don’t care about the world,” he said.

Joe and Amy are thankful to all the agencies and to each other for overcoming homelessness, but Joe admitted the fear hasn’t quite gone away. Amy said they are permanently housed, but it is dependent on their rental rates and her hours.

“It’s an everyday thing,” Joe said. “It’s a prayer if we’re going to keep strong and keep things together. If she comes home and says she has bad news, I start praying. When her hours get cut, I get scared. I don’t want to be out there anymore than I have to.

“I thank God everyday that I’m not homeless anymore,” he said.

Local Homeless statistics

According to statistics from the Ionia-Montcalm Continuum of Care, the homeless population in the two counties was 570 people last year, including:

• 397 in Montcalm County, 332 of whom were literally homeless (didn’t have a place to sleep at night).

• 229 in Ionia County, 164 of whom were literally homeless (didn’t have a place to sleep at night).

• 158 children in Montcalm County.

• 107 children in Ionia County.

• 41.81 percent of the homeless population are younger than 18 years old.

• 328 of them are females.

• 244 of them are males.

• 1 is transgender (male to female).

• 543 of them are white.

• 21 are black or African American.

• 5 are American Indian or Alaska Native.

• 2 are Asian.

• 1 is Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander.

 • 1 is unknown.

• 33.33 percent of them have a high school diploma.

• 20 percent of them have some college education.

• 13 percent of them have a GED.

 

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